Thalassemia is a hereditary (i.e., passed from parents to children through genes) blood disorder characterized by the body’s inability to produce enough hemoglobin, a key component of red blood cells. When the body’s red blood cells don’t have enough hemoglobin, they don’t function effectively and survive for shorter periods of time, resulting in fewer healthy red blood cells flowing through the bloodstream, says Dr. Vikas Dua, the Best Thalassemia Transplant Doctors In India.
Red blood cells provide oxygen to all of the body’s cells. Oxygen is a type of nourishment that cells consume in order to operate properly. When there aren’t enough healthy red blood cells, oxygen isn’t supplied to the rest of the body’s cells, which can make a person feel lethargic, weak, or short of breath. In persons with thalassemia, Anemia can vary from mild to severe. Severe Anemia can cause organ damage and even death.
What are some of the signs and symptoms of thalassemia?
Thalassemia symptoms can vary depending on the clinical severity of the disease and the treatments used to treat it. Symptoms may differ from child to child. Patients with the thalassemia trait don’t usually have any symptoms.
How is thalassemia diagnosed? How can you know if you have thalassemia?
After testing to determine the kind of thalassemia a kid has, a diagnosis of thalassemia is established.
Doctors will be able to detail the best therapy alternatives after those tests are completed.
What is the treatment for thalassemia?
Children with thalassemia require a multidisciplinary approach that includes hematologists and transfusion medicine specialists, as well as cardiologists, endocrinologists, gastroenterologists, audiologists, ophthalmologists, infectious disease specialists, geneticists, and genetic counselors as needed.
The severity of thalassemia determines how it is treated. If your kid has transfusion-dependent thalassemia, she will need lifelong medical treatment, which may include:
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Immunodeficiency disorders are immune system failures that cause infections to develop and reoccur more frequently, to be more severe, and to stay longer than they should. Immunodeficiency disorders are most commonly caused by the use of a medicine or a long-term serious disease (such as cancer), although they can also be hereditary. People with autoimmune disorders or cancer are more likely to have numerous, uncommon, or extremely severe or persistent infections.
In fact, immunodeficiency commonly affects numerous components, with severe combined immunodeficiency (which is primary) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (which is secondary).
1. Primary immunodeficiency
From childhood onwards, the number of uncommon disorders has an increased vulnerability to infections. Congenital immunodeficiency is another name for primary immunodeficiency. Many of these disorders are autosomal recessive or X-linked in nature. There are around 95 known primary immunodeficiency disorders, which are classified based on which portion of the immune system is affected, such as lymphocytes or granulocytes.
Primary immunodeficiencies are treated with antibody infusions, long-term antibiotics, and (in certain circumstances) stem cell transplantation, depending on the severity of the abnormality. X-Linked Agammaglobulinemic and Common Variable Immune Deficiency are two disorders that have features of absent and/or compromised antibody functions.
2. Secondary immunodeficiencies
Secondary immunodeficiencies, sometimes called acquired immunodeficiencies, can be caused by a variety of immunosuppressive causes, such as starvation, aging, or certain medicines (e.g., chemotherapy, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, immunosuppressive drugs after organ transplants, glucocorticoids). Immunosuppression refers to both the positive and negative impacts of reducing immune systems with drugs, whereas immunodeficiency only refers to the negative effect of increased infection risk.
Immunosuppression is caused by a variety of diseases, either directly or indirectly. Many kinds of cancer, especially those of the bone marrow and blood cells (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma), as well as many chronic infections, fall under this category. Immune deficiency can be caused by a variety of hormonal and metabolic conditions, such as anemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperglycemia.
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